1. Which is better to grow plants in Rock sand or soil?

When we grew plants inside, with no wind, and the plants in the rocks grew better than the plants that were growing from the sand and dirt from outside.

2. What happens when the cell membrane or plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?

When cell membrane ruptures Ions leek out and unless repaired in time the cell will die. As we know that the plasma membrane is not stationary, and it is made of lipids and protein, so when damage happens the cell repairs itself by producing new part like the damaged one that is why it is dynamic.

3. What are analogies for mitochondria?

Well, as you know, the mitochondria are the producers of most of a cell's energy and the nucleolus creates ribosomes. The cell wall is only in a plant cell and is a rigid layer of non-living material that surrounds the cells of plants and some organisms.

4. What is a terrestrial organism?

'Terra' is the Latin word for earth. Therefore, an animal that lives on the surface of the earth is called terrestrial. This is the same root word as 'extraterrestrial' meaning an alien.

5. What is the optimum temperature for catalyses?

For any chemical reaction, the reaction rate increases with temperature, so the higher the temperature, the faster the rate. For any enzymatic reaction, the reaction rate will increase with temperature until the temperature at which the enzyme begins to denature is reached, and this is the optimum temperature.

The denaturizing temperature depends on the composition of the protein (its amino acid sequence), which varies for catalyses from different organisms. Therefore, the answer to your question is that the optimum temperature is dependent on the source organism.

6. How much salt is in the human body?

50 Kilo human has about 7 tablespoons of salt within him.

7. What is the difference between an acid and a base?

Base is any thing, which has a capability to abstract a proton.

Using the simplest definition, an acid is something when added to water releases hydrogen ions (H+), also called protons. A base, or an alkali, is something that when added to water releases hydroxide (OH-) ions.

The strength of a basic (or alkaline) or acidic solution is measured using the pH scale. A pH of 7 is perfectly pure neutral water (neither acidic nor basic), and pH below 7 is acidic, and a pH above 7 is basic.

There is another definition, which says that an acid releases H+ and a bases remove H+ from water. This definition is a bit more general than the first one above. Note that releasing OH- is the same as removing H+. This is because when OH- mixes with H+, they form neutral H2O, and so for every OH- released, one H+ is removed by combining them into water.

The final definition of an acid and base is the most general, but the hardest to understand conceptually, and it is not always taught in high school because of this. According to this definition, acids are electron pair acceptors, and bases are electron pair donors.

8. What is cell biology?

Cell biology is the science of studying how cells function such as their reproduction and metabolism, their internal and external anatomy.

9. What is a recessive gene?

With the birth of a child, it gets its genes from both parents. Some genes 'override' other genes. Using hair color as example:

If one parent is blond (Pb) and one parent is black hair (Pd), blond would be the recessive gene, and dark would be the dominant gene. Meaning:

Pb x Pb = Blond Pd x Pd = Dark Pb x Pd = Dark Pd x Pb = Dark

Recessive genes occur in the genotype (inside the body, disease, disorder) or fenotype (appearance, blue eyes brown eyes). In all other cases, the dominant gene will override the recessive gene.

10. Does seed germination affect plant growth?

Germination does affect plant growth

Without germination in the plant, the plant is not able to grow. The germination is the beginning of life for the seed plant

However, the rate of germination is not directly related to rates of plant growth one can find speedy germinating seeds, which grow slowly and vice versa.

Download Interview PDF

11. What is an analogy for a smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is like a manufacturing plant, like a factory, where proteins and lipids are made. This is also where things are packaged into boxed and sent off to different places. In the cell the smooth ER is a network of membrane bound bodies which lack ribosomes (the molecules used in protein synthesis) and its primary function is to modify, encapsulate and transport newly synthesized proteins and lipids which will be secreted or remain in the cytoplasm as membrane bound vesicles. The smooth ER can also be compared to a highway, or a protein and lipid highway, if you will. It is sometimes called the transitional ER because it contains exit sites from which transport vesicles carrying these proteins and lipids bud off for transport to the Golgi apparatus. It is usually prominent in cells that specialize in lipid metabolism and synthesis.

12. What are the examples of homeostasis?

Regulation of body temperature, control of blood glucose levels, the regulation of salt and water balance

13. How do you determine if a molecule is polar or non-polar?

A polar molecule is a molecule that has a net dipole moment due to its having unsymmetrical polar bonds.

Two factors go into determining if a molecule is a polar. To determine if a molecule (or ion) is polar or non-polar, you must determine both factors.

1) The polarity of the individual bonds in the molecule;

2) The shape or geometry of the molecule

First, to determine if a given individual bond is a polar, you need to know the electro negativity of two atoms involved in that bond. To find the electro negativities of all the elements, look at the periodic table (follow the link to the left of this answer under Web Links). If the electro negativity of the two atoms has a difference of 0.3 or less, then the bond is non-polar. If the electro negativity difference is greater that 0.3 but less than 1.7, then the bond is polar.

Once you know which bonds in the molecule are known as polar and which are non-polar, you must use the shape of the molecule. You need the shape because two polar bonds, if oriented correctly can cancel each other out (like two equally strong people pulling in opposite directions on a rope -- nobody moves). There are 3 possible outcomes:

14. How does caffeine effect plant growth?

Minerals like potassium are often found alongside caffeine when it occurs in plant sources like coffee beans, and that could help the plant grow faster. However, the caffeine itself would be unlikely to have any affect on the plant's rate of growth.

I tested it and the plant grew at normal rate but the leaves were more wrinkly and browner

15. What are the names and uses of the various laboratory tools?

Tools include beakers, microscopes, tweezers, hot plates, lasers, voltmeters, test tubes, Erlenmeyer flasks, thermometers, test tube racks, Bunsen burners, crucibles, tripods and more. They are used to measure, observe and gather data for experiments, as well as to perform reactions and to heat things. More advanced laboratory equipment includes items such as spectrometers, centrifuges and chromatographs.

Safety Tools

1. Eye Wash: In case materials get into your eyes, use this to rinse them out

2. Safety Shower: In case materials get onto your clothing or body, use this to rinse them off

16. Why mosquito bites and it causes itching?

A mosquito does not actually bite you, of course. It sucks your blood.

To help enable effective blood sucking, it first injects anti-coagulant saliva to stop the blood from clotting or forming a scab while it feeds. When the mosquito goes away, its saliva stays in the pocket under your skin.

Now comes the itchy part. Your body releases histamine to fight off a foreign substance. It is the same as an allergic reaction. The histamine causes swelling around the area and as a side effect, it itches.

17. What are living and nonliving reservoirs?

Viruses are both living as well as non-living. They have reservoirs of genes. A single nucleotide is a unit of gene. Viral genes make use of host raw material (non-living elements/organic moieties/ water etc.,) including elements to synthesize organic molecules or macromolecules. Subsequently, viruses replicate themselves thereby reproduce within the living cells. On crystallization, they become non-living and can stay in this state for years until they enter again into a living host to multiply. Certain plant viruses are transmitted to the progeny through seeds. Viruses evolve as any other living being. Therefore, now virus names are written in italics like binomial/trinomial names similar to scientific name of any other living organism i.e. Tobacco mosaic virus (read as italic).

18. What is a characteristic feature of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane?

Carrier proteins are globular proteins which are specific it their action and thus regulate the entry and exit of particles into the cell. They help in the conduction of ionic substances and polar substances.

19. What are some things that have algae in them?

Yeast is considered Algae. The Research I have done says that Dairy Products have Algae.

20. What is the natural habitat of E.coli?

The E.coli was first identified in the colon region of large intestine and so it was given the name "coli" (found in colon) they are coliforms. It luxuriously grows in our large intestine and it is an important normal microflora of human. It will not do any harm when present in intestine and if it enters the blood or other sites of the body, it causes urinary tract infection

21. How do keep respiratory system healthy?

The circulatory system supplies food and oxygen to the body's cell. It carries away waste production of energy. The wastes must then be removed.

22. Who created the two-part naming system used in biology?

The scientific naming system that is used worldwide today was first devised by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1737. He proposed a two-part naming system, which classifies every living organism with a string of Latin and Greek identifiers. Full names are devised starting with kingdom and extending downward through phylum, subphylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The two-part name, or binomial name, consists of the genus and species of the organism and used to prevent the confusion that may arise with common names.

The binomial nomenclature (two-part name) of an organism belongs to a universal format: the genus of the organism is the first name, which is always capitalized, and acts as a noun. The species of the organism is always the second name, is minuscule (lower-case), and acts as an adjective. Take, for example, the cougar. The cougar's genus is Puma, and its species is known as concolor. The entire name would read as follows, Puma concolor or P. concolor for short.

23. What is an organ that belongs to more than one organ system?

One answer is the pancreas. It belongs to both the endocrine and digestive systems.

Another one is bone marrow. It is part of the skeletal and the circulatory system because it makes both red and white blood cells.

24. Why do leaves change color?

Leaves are the food factories of plants. During the spring and summer, leaves are actively making food and they are filled with chlorophyll, which gives green color. As summer, ends and the days get shorter and cooler, food production stops and the leaves stop producing food. The chlorophyll disappears and they begin to change into the yellows, oranges, and reds that we see in autumn.

Download Interview PDF

25. Why would a tongue not detect mild sweetness after eating foods with high sweetness?

This happens because of the "desensitization" of sensory receptors on the sensory cells of your tongue. This phenomenon occurs in all of our senses, where a strong and continuous stimulus desensitizes us to the same stimulus, so that it is harder to detect. For example, this is how you adjust to new smells, or why it is harder to hear after attending a loud concert. It is part of how your body is able to adapt to new environments. The sensory cells of your sensory organs regulate and “desensitize” these receptors in multiple ways. For instance, sensory receptors on the cell surface can be deactivated or cells can internalize the receptors and degrade them, both of these events effectively reduce the number of functioning receptors on the cell surface and thus reduce its ability to detect a stimulus.