An underlying assumption of the argument above is that a movie based on a novel should:
1. reflect the director's original interpretation of the main themes of the novel.
2. accurately depict the time and place in which the novel is set.
3. feature actors and actresses who closely resemble the characters in the novel both in body and spirit.
4. faithfully render the details of the plot from the narrator's point of view.
5. capture the true meaning and intention of the novel.
Ans : E
2. Studies of fatal automobile accidents reveal that, in the majority of cases in which one occupant of an automobile is killed while another survives, it is the passenger, not the driver, who is killed. It is ironic that the innocent passenger should suffer for the drivers carelessness, while the driver often suffers only minor injuries or none at all.
Which of the following is an assumption underlying the reasoning in the passage above?
1. In most fatal automobile accidents, the driver of a car in which an occupant is killed is at fault.
2. Drivers of automobiles are rarely killed in auto accidents.
3. Most deaths in fatal automobile accidents are suffered by occupants of cars rather than by pedestrians.
4. Auto safety experts should increase their efforts to provide protection for those in the passenger seats of automobiles.
5. Automobile passengers sometimes play a contributing role in causing auto accidents.
Ans : A
3. An ingredient in coffee, known as RTC, has been found to inactivate common cold viruses in experiments. In previous experiments, researchers found that inactivated common cold viruses can convert healthy cells into cancer cells. It can be concluded that the use of coffee can cause cancer.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
1. Several teams of scientists performed the various experiments, and all of the teams had similar results.
2. The carcinogenic effect of RTC could be neutralized by the other ingredients found in coffee.
3. When RTC kills common cold viruses it weakens the immune system, and it might thus diminish the body's ability to fight other viruses, including viruses linked to cancers.
4. If chemists modify the structure of RTC, RTC can be safely incorporated into medications to prevent the common cold.
5. To lessen the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy, the use of coffee has been recommended for cancer patients who are free of the common cold virus.
Ans : B
4. Smoking in bed has long been the main cause of home fires. Despite a significant decline in cigarette smoking in the last two decades, there has been no comparable decline in the number of people killed in home fires.
Each one of the following statements, if true over the last two decades, helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy above EXCEPT:
1. Compared to other types of home fires, home fires caused by smoking in bed usually cause relatively little damage before they are extinguished.
2. Home fires caused by smoking in bed often break out after the home's occupants have fallen asleep.
3. Smokers who smoke in bed tend to be heavy smokers who are less likely to quit smoking than are smokers who do not smoke in bed.
4. An increasing number of people have been killed in home fires that started in the kitchen.
5. Population densities have increased, with the result that one home fire can cause more deaths than in previous decades.
Ans : B
5. The senate candidate expressed outrage that few judges have any background in technology, yet they try to resolve cases involving high tech companies. He stated that not one federal judge has a degree or any experience in computer technology.
A promising response to this concern, arguing that things are not as bad as they might seem, could involve which of the following claims?
1. Most of the public policy questions in this area are really about the morality and the value of scientific and technological developments. They do not require much technical understanding beyond that of a layperson.
2. Computer scientists, by and large, have little interest in politics and public policy. It would be difficult to find scientists with the degree of commitment required for a serious contribution to the judicial system.
3. There is a lack of people who are qualified in both technical and legal areas of expertise.
4. There is very little opportunity for, and indeed little need for, technical expertise in the judicial branch. There is therefore almost no way for a technical specialist to rise through the ranks to a top-level position in government.
5. The rewards of a life as a judge, in terms of both money and prestige, are not high enough to attract top-flight technical experts to this area.
Ans : A
6. Many people argue that the death penalty deters murder. However, the notorious killer Ned Grandy deliberately moved to a state that imposes the death penalty just before embarking on a series of ferocious murders. Thus, it seems clear that the existence of the death penalty does not serve as a deterrent to murder.
The argument above may best be characterized as:
1. an appeal to emotion.
2. a flawed analogy.
3. a general conclusion based on a specific example.
4. circular reasoning.
5. an application of a general principle to a specific example.
Ans : C
7. The government of Zunimagua has refused to schedule free elections, release political prisoners, or restore freedom of speech; therefore, no more financial aid from the United States should be provided to Zunimagua.
Which of the following is an assumption made in the argument above?
1. Withdrawal of U.S. aid from Zunimagua will force a change in the policies of its government.
2. The people of Zunimagua would be better off if their present despotic government were overthrown.
3. The government of Zunimagua is dependent on continued U.S. aid for its existence.
4. U.S. aid should be given only to countries willing to adopt policies in line with U.S. interests and goals.
5. U.S. aid should be withdrawn from any country that refuses to operate its government along democratic lines.
Ans : E
8. Dear Editor: I feel obliged to comment on the unfair review you published last week written by Robert Duxbury. Your readers should know that Mr. Duxbury recently published his own book that covered the same topic as my book, which you asked him to review. It is regrettable that Mr. Duxbury should feel the need to belittle a competing work in the hope of elevating his own book.
The author of the letter above makes her point by employing which method of argument?
1. Attacking the motives of the author of the unfavorable review.
2. Attacking the book on the same topic written by the author of the review.
3. Contrasting her own book with that written by the author of the review.
4. Questioning the judgment of the author of the unfavorable review.
5. Stating that her book should not have been reviewed by the author of a competing work.
Ans : A
Which of the following, if true, would weaken the above conclusion?
1. Students who are away from their parents often exhibit rude behavior.
2. The college numbers over 50,000 students.
3. The narrator is a student and has interacted with many students.
4. Social skills should not be expected of college students.
5. The narrator was reluctant to stay at the college.
Ans : B
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument above?
1. Planes are inspected more often than cars.
2. The number of car accidents is several hundred thousand times higher than the number of plane accidents.
3. Pilots never fly under the influence of alcohol, while car drivers often do.
4. Plane accidents are usually the fault of air traffic controllers, not pilots.
5. Planes carry more passengers than cars do.
Ans : B