1. Simpsons Paradox occurs when?

* a) No baseline risk is given, so it is not know whether a a high relative risk has practical importance
* b) High relative risk has practical importance
* b) A confounding variable rather than the explanatory variable is responsible for a change in the response variable.
* c) The direction of the relationship between two variables changes when the categories of a confounding variable are taken into account.
* d) The results of a test are statistically significant but are really due to chance.

Answer - c

2. Pick the choice that best completes the following sentence. If a relationship between two variables is called statistically significant, it means the investigators think the variables are?

* a) Related in the population represented by the sample.
* b) Not related in the population represented by the sample
* c) Related in the sample due to chance alone
* d) Very important

Answer - a

3. A chi-square test involves a set of counts called “expected counts.” What are the expected counts?

* a) Hypothetical counts that would occur of the alternative hypothesis were true.
* b) Hypothetical counts that would occur if the null hypothesis were true
* c) The actual counts that did occur in the observed data
* d) The long-run counts that would be expected if the observed counts are representative.

Answer - b

4. A chi-square test of the relationship between personal perception of emotional health and marital status led to rejection of the null hypothesis, indicating that there is a relationship between these two variables. One conclusion that can be drawn is?

* a) Marriage leads to better emotional health.
* b) Better emotional health leads to marriage.
* c) The more emotionally healthy someone is, the more likely are they to be married
* d) There are likely to be confounding variables related to both emotional health and marital status

Answer - d

5. Most of the women in this sample felt that their actual weight was?

* a) About the same as their ideal weight
* b) less than their ideal weight.
* c) greater than their ideal weight.
* d) No more than 2 pounds different from their ideal weight

Answer - c

6. The median of the distribution is approximately?

* a) -10 pounds
* b) 10 pounds
* c) 30 pounds
* d) 50 pounds

Answer - b

8. The newspaper also reported, The number of children in the study who contracted asthma was relatively small Answer - 265 of 3,535. From this information and the information given in the original quote, which of the following could not be computed?

* a) The baseline risk of getting asthma without participating in after-school sports
* b) The overall risk of getting asthma for the children in this study
* c) The relative risk of getting asthma for children who routinely participate in vigorous after-school sports on smoggy days and their non-athletic peers.
* d) All of the above could be computed

Answer - a

10. people over 30?

* a) 2.5
* b) 0.4
* c) 0.5
* d) 30%

Answer - a

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