a) Top-down and bottom-up parsing
The two types of parsing are top-down parsing and bottom-up parsing.
a) Optical character recognition
When perception is used in printing means, It is called as optical character recognition.
Communication is the intentional exchange of information brought about by production and perception of signs drawn from a shared system.
Language is the complex system of structured message that enables us to communicate.
The five things present in the conventional communication system are query, inform, request, acknowledge and promise.
b) Formal language
A formal language is defined by set of strings that is a concatenation of terminal symbols.
b) Building a parse tree
Parsing is the process of building a parse tree for an input string.
The four objects are available in closed classes are pronoun, article, preposition and conjunction.
The three state available in parsing are initial state, successor function and goal test.