A liability account is a general ledger account in which a company records its debt, obligations, customer deposits and customer prepayments, certain deferred income taxes, etc. that are the result of a past transaction. Common liability accounts under the accrual method of accounting include Accounts Payable, Accrued Liabilities (amounts owed but not yet recorded in Accounts Payable), Notes Payable, Unearned Revenues, Deferred Income Taxes (certain temporary timing differences), etc.
A company's revenues are amounts it has earned as the result of business activities such as selling merchandise or performing services. Under the accrual method of accounting, revenues are reported on the income statement in the period in which they are earned even when a dependable customer is allowed to pay 60 days later. In this example, when the revenues are earned the company will credit a revenues account and will debit the asset account Accounts Receivable.
The accrual method of accounting reports revenues on the income statement when they are earned even if the customer will pay 30 days later. At the time that the revenues are earned the company will credit a revenue account and will debit the asset account Accounts Receivable. When the customer pays 30 days after the revenues were earned, the company will debit Cash and will credit Accounts Receivable.
The accrual method of accounting also requires that expenses and losses be reported on the income statement when they occur even if payment will take place 30 days later. For example, if a company has a $15,000 repair done on December 15 and the vendor allows for payment on January 15, the company will report a repair expense and a liability of $15,000 as of December 15. On January 15 the company will credit Cash and will debit the liability account.
Balance sheet accounts are one of two types of general ledger accounts. Income statement accounts make up the other type. Balance sheet accounts are used to sort and store transactions involving assets, liabilities, and owner's or stockholders' equity. Examples of a corporation's balance sheet accounts include Cash, Accounts Receivable, Investments, Buildings, Equipment, Accumulated Depreciation, Notes Payable, Accounts Payable, Payroll Taxes Payable, Paid-in Capital, Retained Earnings, etc.
Balance sheet accounts are described as permanent or real accounts because at the end of the accounting year the balances in these accounts are not closed. Instead, the end-of-the-accounting-year balances will be carried forward to become the beginning balances in the next accounting year. This is different from the income statement accounts, which begin each accounting year with zero balances.
The statement of cash flows is one of the main financial statements. It is to accompany the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of stockholders' equity. The statement of cash flows (also known as the cash flow statement) reports.
★ The major sources and uses of cash during the period of the income statement.
★ A reconciliation of the change in an organization's cash and cash equivalents (which are reported on the beginning and ending balance sheets).
★ Supplementary information including the amount of income taxes paid, the amount of interest paid, and significant noncash investing and financing activities (such as issuing common stock in exchange for land).
Net usually refers to the combination of positive and negative amounts. For example, the amount of net sales is the combination of the amount of gross sales (a positive amount) and some negative amounts such as sales returns, sales allowances, and sales discounts. Hence, if gross sales are 990 and sales returns are 10, sales allowances are 5, and sales discounts 20, the net sales are 955.
The income statement is a key financial statement which reports on a company's profitability during a relatively short period of time such as the past year, month, 13 weeks, etc. The heading of the income statement informs the reader of the period covered.
The main components of the income statement are:
★ Certain gains and losses
This financial statement begins with the bottom line of the income statement and then lists the items considered to be other comprehensive income. Some of these items involve currency translation, hedging, available-for-sale securities, and pensions.
This financial statement is also known as the statement of operations, statement of earnings, or income statement. It reports the corporation's revenues, expenses, gains and losses (except for items stipulated as other comprehensive income) for a period of time such as a year, quarter, 13 months, etc.