Purposes of maintaining control ledgers are:
★ Sundry Debtors
★ Sundry Creditors
★ Advances to Staff
The Money Behind a Letter of Credit.
A bank promises to pay on behalf of a customer, but where does the money come from? The bank will only issue a letter of credit if they know the buyer will pay. Some buyers have to deposit (or already have) enough money to cover the letter of credit, and some customers use a line of credit with the bank. Sellers must trust that the bank issuing the letter of credit is legitimate.
Generally there is no journal entry at the time when one receives a purchase order as this receipt of purchase order cannot be recognized as revenue at this point of time.
But under following circumstance there would be an entry:
when any advance is received:
Cash/ Bank Dr
A fund flow statement or a cash flow statement records the changes in monetary funds over a period of time, usually by comparing the latest position at balance sheet date with the corresponding monetary position a year ago.
There are various elements of business that affect fund/cash flow. These include such things as increased sales, reductions or increases in debtors, longer or shorter times in paying creditors, repayments of loans, etc., a summary of which should be shown on separate lines of the statement. It can start with a section listing the elements that contribute to an increase in cash, then the next section lists those items which have contributed to a decrease in cash.
Variance analysis in budgeting or management accounting in general is a tool of budgetary control by evluation of performance by means of variance between budgeted amount, planned amount or standard amt and the actual amt incurred/sold.
Variance can be carried out for both revenue & cost. Variance analysis hepls the management to know the present cost & then control the future cost.
Examples includes sale price variance, sales quantity variance, sales mix variance.
GPSD is a service daemon that monitors one or more GPSes or AIS receivers attached to a host computer through serial or USB ports, making all data on the location/course/velocity of the sensors available to be queried on TCP port 2947 of the host computer. With gpsd, multiple location-aware client applications (such as navigational and wardriving software) can share access to receivers without contention or loss of data. Also, gpsd responds to queries with a format that is substantially easier to parse than the NMEA 0183 emitted by most GPSes. The GPSD distribution includes a linkable C service library, a C++ wrapper class, and a Python module that developers of gpsd-aware applications can use to encapsulate all communication with GPSD.
Besides GPSD itself, the project provides auxiliary tools for diagnostic monitoring and profiling of receivers and feeding location-aware applications GPS/AIS logs for diagnostic purposes.
8. Which procedures are in place to ensure that a sponsored project is carried out in compliance with the terms, conditions and financial management and reporting requirements of both the municipality and provincial treasury?
Suppose the Bank has granted the loan for specific project for example to invest in the additional capacity production of the company by investing in new equipment.Now the Compliance towards the corporation is to follow the procedure and make the budget plan,Financial Reporting,Accounting and Management Plan,Operational plan accordingly.Prior to Investment it has to take due consideration from the Municipality for Space Requirement for additional equipment,Lease Rent,Development fees,Permission fees and other charges.In case of Provincial Treasury budget for Increase in Treasury due to new Project according to compliance.
It is forecasting of expenses/income of company which can made by our past records or by some assumption.
Under cash system of accounting, transactions are recorded in books on the basis of their actual payment or receipt made.
Under the accrual basis of accounting, the transaction are record on their occurrence in the business regardless of actual payment or receipt is made, and recognizes the assets and liabilities accordingly. provisions are made for all known losses and obligations are recorded for the period to which it relates to in the books.