1. List the types of ethical hackers?

The types of ethical hackers are:
★ Grey Box hackers or Cyberwarrior
★ Black Box penetration Testers
★ White Box penetration Testers
★ Certified Ethical hacker

2. How to stop website getting hacked?

By adapting following method you can stop your website from getting hacked:
Sanitizing and Validating users parameters:
By Sanitizing and Validating user parameters before submitting them to the database can reduce the chances of being attacked by SQL injection.
Using Firewall:
Firewall can be used to drop traffic from suspicious IP address if attack is a simple DOS.
Encrypting the Cookies:
Cookie or Session poisoning can be prevented by encrypting the content of the cookies, associating cookies with the client IP address and timing out the cookies after some time.
Validating and Verifying user input:
This approach is ready to prevent form tempering by verifying and validating the user input before processing it.
Validating and Sanitizing headers:
This techniques is useful against cross site scripting or XSS, this technique includes validating and sanitizing headers, parameters passed via the URL, form parameters and hidden values to reduce XSS attacks.

3. what are the tools Burp Suite consist of?

The tools that Burp Suite has:
★ Proxy
★ Spider
★ Scanner
★ Intruder
★ Repeater
★ Decoder
★ Comparer
★ Sequencer

4. What is Burp Suite?

Burp suite is an integrated platform used for attacking web applications. It consists of all the Burp tools required for attacking an application. Burp Suite tool has same approach for attacking web applications like framework for handling HTTP request, upstream proxies, alerting, logging and so on.

5. What is CSRF (Cross Site Request Forgery)?

CSRF or Cross site request forgery is an attack from a malicious website that will send a request to a web application that a user is already authenticated against from a different website. To prevent CSRF you can append unpredictable challenge token to each request and associate them with user's session. It will ensure the developer that the request received is from a valid source.

6. What are the types of hacking stages?

The types of hacking stages are:
★ Gaining AccessEscalating
★ PrivilegesExecuting
★ ApplicationsHiding
★ FilesCovering Tracks

7. What are the types of password cracking techniques?

The types of password cracking technique includes:
★ AttackBrute Forcing
★ AttacksHybrid
★ AttackSyllable
★ AttackRule

8. What is MIB?

MIB ( Management Information Base ) is a virtual database. It contains all the formal description about the network objects that can be managed using SNMP. The MIB database is hierarchical and in MIB each managed objects is addressed through object identifiers (OID).

9. What is NTP?

To synchronize clocks of networked computers, NTP (Network Time Protocol) is used. For its primary means of communication UDP port 123 is used. Over the public internet NTP can maintain time to within 10 milliseconds.

10. Define Enumeration?

The process of extracting machine name, user names, network resources, shares and services from a system. Under Intranet environment enumeration techniques are conducted.

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11. What is Keylogger Trojan?

Keylogger Trojan is malicious software that can monitor your keystroke, logging them to a file and sending them off to remote attackers. When the desired behaviour is observed, it will record the keystroke and captures your login username and password.

12. Define Mac Flooding?

Mac Flooding is a technique where the security of given network switch is compromised. In Mac flooding the hacker or attacker floods the switch with large number of frames, then what a switch can handle. This make switch behaving as a hub and transmits all packets at all the ports. Taking the advantage of this the attacker will try to send his packet inside the network to steal the sensitive information.

13. What is Defacement?

In this technique the attacker replaces the organization website with a different page. It contains the hackers name, images and may even include messages and background music.

14. What is Pharming?

In this technique the attacker compromises the DNS ( Domain Name System) servers or on the user computer so that traffic is directed to a malicious site.

15. List the types of Cross site scripting?

There are three types of Cross-site scripting:
★ Non-persistent
★ Persistent
★ Server side versus DOM based vulnerabilities

16. Define Cross-site scripting?

Cross site scripting is done by using the known vulnerabilities like web based applications, their servers or plug-ins users rely upon. Exploiting one of these by inserting malicious coding into a link which appears to be a trustworthy source. When users click on this link the malicious code will run as a part of the client's web request and execute on the user's computer, allowing attacker to steal information.

17. What is DHCP Rogue Server?

A Rogue DHCP server is DHCP server on a network which is not under the control of administration of network staff. Rogue DHCP Server can be a router or modem. It will offer users IP addresses , default gateway, WINS servers as soon as user's logged in. Rogue server can sniff into all the traffic sent by client to all other networks.

18. List the common forms of DOS attack?

★ Buffer Overflow Attacks
★ SYN Attack
★ Teardrop Attack
★ Smurf Attack
★ Viruses

19. What is DOS (Denial of service) attack?

Denial of Service, is a malicious attack on network that is done by flooding the network with useless traffic. Although, DOS does not cause any theft of information or security breach, it can cost the website owner a great deal of money and time.

20. How to avoid or prevent ARP poisoning?

ARP poisoning can be prevented by following methods:
Packet Filtering:
Packet filters are capable for filtering out and blocking packets with conflicting source address information.
Avoid trust relationship:
Organization should develop protocol that rely on trust relationship as little as possible.
Use ARP spoofing detection software:
There are programs that inspects and certifies data before it is transmitted and blocks data that is spoofed.
Use cryptographic network protocols:
By using secure communications protocols like TLS, SSH, HTTP secure prevents ARP spoofing attack by encrypting data prior to transmission and authenticating data when it is received.

21. What is ARP Spoofing or ARP poisoning?

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a form of attack in which an attacker changes MAC ( Media Access Control) address and attacks an internet LAN by changing the target computer's ARP cache with a forged ARP request and reply packets.

22. Define SQL injection?

SQL is one of the technique used to steal data from organizations, it is a fault created in the application code. SQL injection happens when you inject the content into a SQL query string and the result mode content into a SQL query string, and the result modifies the syntax of your query in ways you did not intend.

23. What is Network Sniffing?

A network sniffer monitors data flowing over computer network links. By allowing you to capture and view the packet level data on your network, sniffer tool can help you to locate network problems. Sniffers can be used for both stealing information off a network and also for legitimate network management.

24. List the types of computer based social engineering attacks?

Computer based social engineering attacks are:
★ Phishing
★ Baiting
★ On-line scams

25. Define Phishing?

Phishing technique involves sending false e-mails, chats or website to impersonate real system with aim of stealing information from original website.

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26. Define footprinting in ethical hacking?

Footprinting refers accumulating and uncovering as much as information about the target network before gaining access into any network. The approach adopted by hackers before hacking.

27. Define Stack Fingerprinting?

Once the hosts and port have been mapped by scanning the network, the final footprinting step can be performed. This is called Stack fingerprinting.

28. What is Brute Force Hack?

Brute force hack is a technique for hacking password and get access to system and network resources, it takes much time, it needs a hacker to learn about JavaScripts. For this purpose, one can use tool name "Hydra".

29. Define Network Enumeration?

The hacker tries to identify the domain names and the network blocks of the target network.

30. Define Open Source Footprinting?

It will look for the contact information of administrators that will be used in guessing the password in Social engineering.

31. Define Scanning?

Once the network is known, the second step is to spy the active IP addresses on the network. For identifying active IP addresses (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol is an active IP addresses.

32. What are the common tools which are used by Ethical hackers?

★ Meta Sploit
★ Wire Shark
★ John The Ripper
★ Maltego

33. What is MAC (Machine Access Control) address?

A MAC address is a unique serial number assigned to every network interface on every device. Mac address is like your physical mail box, only your postal carrier (network router) can identify it and you can change it by getting a new mailbox (network card) at any time and slapping your name (IP address) on it.

34. What is IP address?

To every device IP address is assigned, so that device can be located on the network. In other words IP address is like your postal address, where anyone who knows your postal address can send you a letter.

35. What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical Hacking is when a person is allowed to hacks the system with the permission of the product owner to find weakness in a system and later fix them.

36. How hard would it be to hack into a google voice account and change the owners google voice number?
im not trying to do this, it just "supposedly" happened to one of my friends and im wondering how possible this actually is?

37. What is a trojan/worm/virus?

Trojan: A program that when run by a user does an action that the
users did not expect, or the program was not designed to do.

Virus: A portion of code that attaches it self to other executable
files in the attempt to replicate and spread itself.

Worm: A stand alone program that acomplishes a task in the
background by replicating and moving though a computer

38. What is a hacking loop?

A loop is two phone numbers connected together by the phone company
for testing purposes. A loop has a high end and a low end. If you
dial the high end, you will hear nothing. Not even a ring. If you
dial the low end, you will hear an annoying 1,000hz tone for several
seconds. If you connect to the high end and someone dials the low
end, you can speak to each other.

39. What is a ringback number?

A ringback number is a number that you call that will immediately
ring the telephone from which it was called.

40. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Get the IRC client from cs.bu.edu /irc/clients. Look at the source
code files irc.c and ctcp.c. The code you are looking for is fairly
easy to spot. Change it. Change the username code in irc.c and the
ctcp information code in ctcp.c. Compile and run your client.

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41. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?

Find a server that is split from the rest of IRC and create your own
channel there using the name of the channel you want ChanOp on. When
that server reconnects to the net, you will have ChanOp on the real
channel. If you have ServerOp on a server, you can cause it to split
on purpose.

42. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?


43. What is a Black Box?

A Black Box is a 10k ohm resistor placed across your phone line to
cause the phone company equipment to be unable to detect that you have
answered your telephone. People who call you will then not be billed
for the telephone call.

44. Do Blue Boxes still work?

Blue Boxes still work in areas using in-band signalling. Modern phone
signalling switches using ESS (Electronic Signalling Systems) use
out-of-band-signalling. Nothing you send over the voice portion of
bandwidth can control the switch.

45. What is a Blue Box?

Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to convince telephone switches that use
in-band signalling that the caller is actually a telephone operator.
The caller may then access special switch functions, with the usual
purpose of making free long distance phone calls, using the
Multi-Frequency tones provided by the Blue Box.

46. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?

Red Boxes will work on TelCo owned payphones, but not on COCOT's
(Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephones).

47. How do I build a Red Box?

Red boxes are commonly manufactured from modified Radio Shack tone
dialers, Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily
available electronic components.

To make a Red Box from a radio shack tone dialer, open the dialer and
replace the crystal (the largest shiny metal component) with a crystal
close to 6.5Mhz. The most popular choice is the 6.5536Mhz crystal.
When you are finished, program the P1 button with five *'s. That will
simulate a quarter tone. Note that the tone dialer you start with
must have programmable buttons.

48. What is a Red Box?

When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the phone emits a set of
tones. A red box is a device that simulates those tones, with the
purpose of fooling the payphone into believing you have inserted an
actual coin.

49. How do I fake posts to UseNet?

Use inews to post. Give inews the following lines:
For a moderated newsgroup, inews will also require this line:
Then add your post and terminate with <Control-D>.
From: Dale Drew
Newsgroups: alt.2600
Subject: Please forgive me
Message-ID: <d_drew.123@tymnet.com>
Date: Fri, 13 Jun 1994 12:15:03
Organization: Tymnet Insecurity

50. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?

1. Change IFS.

If the shell script calls any other programs using the system()
function call, you may be able to fool it by changing IFS. IFS is the
Internal Field Seperator that the shell uses to delimit arguments.
If the program contains a line that looks like this:
and you change IFS to '/' the shell will them interpret the
proceeding line as:
bin date
Now, if you have a program of your own in the path called "bin" the
suid program will run your program instead of /bin/date.
To change IFS, use this command:
set IFS '/'
2. link the script to -i
Create a symbolic link named "-i" to the program. Running "-i"
will cause the interpreter shell (/bin/sh) to start up in interactive
mode. This only works on suid shell scripts.
% ln suid.sh -i
% -i
3. Exploit a race condition
Replace a symbolic link to the program with another program while the
kernel is loading /bin/sh.
nice -19 suidprog ; ln -s evilprog suidroot
4. Send bad input the the program.
Invoke the name of the program and a seperate command on the same
command line.
suidprog ; id

51. How do I break out of a restricted shell?

On poorly implemented restricted shells you can break out of the
restricted environment by running a program that features a shell
function. A good example is vi. Run vi and use this command:

:set shell=/bin/sh

then shell using this command:


52. What is password shadowing?

Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password
field of /etc/password is replaced with a special token and the
encrypted password is stored in a seperate file which is not readable
by normal system users.

To defeat password shadowing on many systems, write a program that
uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the password file.


#include <pwd.h>
struct passwd *p;
printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%sn", p->pw_name, p->pw_passwd,
p->pw_uid, p->pw_gid, p->pw_gecos, p->pw_dir, p->pw_shell);

53. What is NIS/yp?

NIS (Network Information System) in the current name for what was once
known as yp (Yellow Pages). The purpose for NIS is to allow many
machies on a network to share configuration information, including
password data. NIS is not designed to promote system security. If
your system uses NIS you will have a very short /etc/passwd file with
a line that looks like this:


To view the real password file use this command "cd/etc;ypcat passwd"

54. How do I crack VMS passwords?

Write a program that uses the SYS$GETUAF functions to compare the
results of encrypted words against the encrypted data in SYSUAF.DAT.

Two such programs are known to exist, CHECK_PASSWORD and

55. How do I access the password file under VMS?

Under VMS, the password file is SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT. However,
unlike Unix, most users do not have access to read the password file.

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56. How do I crack Unix passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, Unix passwords cannot be decrypted. Unix
passwords are encrypted with a one way function. The login program
encrypts the text you enter at the "password:" prompt and compares
that encrypted string against the encrypted form of your password.

Password cracking software uses wordlists. Each word in the wordlist
is encrypted with each of the 2600 possible salt values and the
results are compared to the encrypted form of the target password.

The best cracking program for Unix passwords is currently Crack by
Alec Muffett. For PC-DOS, the best package to use is currently

57. How do I access the password file under Unix?

In standard Unix the password file is /etc/passwd. On a Unix system
with either NIS/yp or password shadowing, much of the password data
may be elsewhere.