A cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone is first-line treatment in patients with streptococcal meningitis. Benzylpenicillin would be more appropriate if Neisseria meningitidis was suspected.
Communication skills play a major role in developing patient-doctor relationship. And miscommunication could lead to clashes with relatives/friends of patients over care given to the latter.
In the management of asthma, patients should be sitting upright in bed and receiving 100% oxygen. Salbutamol is given at a dose of 5 mg nebulised, not 500 micrograms. Ipratropium bromide and steroids should then be considered.
Fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle tumors that occur in the uterus. They grow under the influence of estrogen and progesterone, and are thus seen in the reproductive years. By the age of 40, 40% of women have fibroids. African-American women may be prone to get symptomatic fibroids in their 20's. With menopause and the decrease in hormones, fibroids also decrease in size. The most common symptom from fibroids is abnormal bleeding. When fibroids grow, it can also cause pressure symptoms on the bladder, rectum or pelvis. There may be a genetic predisposition to having fibroids and multiple fibroids.
ctev is asso. with consanguity, oligohydroamnios, breech presentation and some cong. malformations. single umb. artery is ass. with increased risk for cong. malformation e.g. renal and cardiac. so screening should be done for other cong. malformation
There are numerous extra-gastrointestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease that occur in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, such as uveitis, conjunctivitis, arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and erythema nodosum. Some occur primarily in Crohn's, such as gallstones and renal stones due to the area of bowel affected, while patients with ulcerative colitis are more likely to develop primary sclerosing cholangitis and venous thromboses.
In drug-induced SLE anti-histone antibody is present in 90% of patients, although this is not specific for the condition. Anti-nuclear antibody is positive in 50% of patients as opposed to 95% of patients with idiopathic SLE.
Tests the candidate's passion for women's health.
In SLE the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is classically raised while C-reactive protein levels can stay normal and therefore CRP is also not as useful as the other investigations to monitor disease activity and progression.
During a woman's menstrual cycle, ovarian cyst formation is normal. These cysts are part of developing an egg to ovulate or to make hormones to support a potential early pregnancy, and are called functional cysts. These type of cysts should disappear with each cycle. I get worried that a cyst is abnormal if it persists for more than 2 cycles, if it is larger than 5 cm, or if it has unusual features such as a septum or solid elements. Sometimes a functional cyst can cause severe pain and internal bleeding if it should rupture internally. This is usually an emergent situation that requires immediate evaluation.