1. The following are true (Ophthalmology):

* a) The HLA proteins are found within the cytoplasm of the cells
* b) HLA class I antigens are expressed on all cells with nuclei
* c) HLA class II antigens presents the virus infected cells to cytotoxic T lymphocytes
* d) HLA genes are found on chromosome 6
* e) HLA tissue typing is carried out in all forms of transplantation to prevent rejection

Answer a. F b. T c .F d. T e. F

2. True statements about chromosome include:

* a) There are 23 pairs of autosomal chromosome traits
* b) 23 chromosomes are found in germinal cells
* d) In female only one chromosome is activated
* c) The Barr body is due to inactivated X chromosome
* e) Klinefelter's syndrome result from an extra X chromosome in male

Answer a. F b. T c. T d. T e .F

3. The following are true about the DNA in mitochondria:

* a) They are found in the ovum and not the spermatozoan
* b) They have their own genome
* c) They are expressed in muscle cells
* d) An affected male with mitochondrial disorder can pass it on to his daughter only
* e) They are responsible for coding enzymes used in oxidation

Answer a. T b. T c. T d. F e. T

4. The following enzymes on the left are responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters on the right:

* a) Monoamine oxidase: noradrenaline
* b) Cholinesterase: acetylcholine
* c) Catechol-o-methyl transferase: dopamine
* d) Dopa decarboxylase: adrenaline
* e) Glutamic acid decarboxylase: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Answer a. F b. F c. F d. T e. T

5. Recognized virulence factors in bacteria include:

* a) Ig A-proteases
* b) Beta lactamases
* c) gonococcal pili
* d) Streptococcal M protein
* e) The capsular polysaccharides in Haemophilus influenzae

Answer a. T b. F c. T d. T e.

6. The following are true about the viruses:

* a) They contain either RNA or DNA nuclei acids only
* b) HIV virus is a DNA virus
* c) Cytomegalovirus is a DNA virus
* d) All herpes viruses are sensitive to acyclovir
* e) Viral replication within the host cells is inhibited by interferons

Answer a. T b. F c. T d .F e. T

7. With regard to immunoglobulin A:

* a) It is the heaviest immunoglobulin
* b) It is the first immunoglobulin to be produced when the body is invaded by viruses
* c) It is secreted by the lacrimal gland
* d) It is secreted in the breast milk
* e) It is an effective defense against gonococcus

Answer a. F b. F c. T d. T e. T

8. In allergic reaction:

* a) Arthus reaction is a type IV reaction
* b) Anaphylaxis occurs in patients who have had no previous exposure to the offending substance
* c) Contact dermatitis is a type IV reaction
* d) Positive Mantoux test is a type III reaction
* e) Urticaria is a type II reaction

Answer a. F b. F c. T d. F e. T

9. True statements about the nucleic acid include:

* a) Contains purine and pyrimidine which are bound together by covalent bonds
* b) There is always an equal concentration of purine and pyrimidine
* c) In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil
* d) Introns is more common than exons on the DNA
* e) The histones mark the excision site

Answer a. F b. T c. T d. F e. F

10. At the adrenergic synapse, the concentration of adrenaline in synaptic cleft:

* a) Increased by cocaine which inhibit reuptake of adrenaline
* b) Decreased by MAO (monoamine oxidase) - inhibitors
* c) Controlled chiefly by the activity of the enzyme COMT
* d) Increased by noradrenaline receptor blockers
* e) Increased by partial agonist of noradrenaline receptors

Answer a. T b. F c. F d. T e. T

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