1. A 35 year old woman has been listed for hysteroscopy. What are the indications for hysteroscopy in a woman of this age?

Abnormal uterine bleeding, Habitual abortion, pelvic pain, cancer,
GIFT, ZIFT, TET, FIVET, Bone metaplasia of the endometrium are
some of the diagnostics observed in this age.

2. How would you assess and treat a 52year old woman who complains of heavy prolonged menstrual bleeding?

It may or maynot be any symptom of ovarian Ca, or fiberus
formation of the uterus or any other complications. So
better she go for hysteroscopy, and blood study for any
infestations of micro organism. check the platelet level in
blood, and WBC count and BT,CT .

Her age is abow 50. so in this age there is less chance
menstuation.

3. 34 year old woman is found to have a monochorionic twin pregnancy at 12 weeks gestation in her first pregnancy. She requests information on the antenatal risks to her and her fetuses and their management. How would you counsel her?

because of the age of the woman, it will be too dificult to
countinue the pregnancy. Other than the multiple pregnancy,
She have only one plasenta for bothe child. so better she
can do LSCS at the onset of labour. Tell the posibilty and
de merits of the LSCS to the PT.

4. 35 year second gravida with single umbilical artery and ctev (club foot)?

ctev is asso. with consanguity, oligohydroamnios, breech
presentation and some cong. malformations. single umb.
artery is ass. with increased risk for cong. malformation
e.g. renal and cardiac. so screening should be done for
other cong. malformation

5. In scanning report of my wife at gender column it is written as III, What is the meaning?

in scanning report both testostorone and progestron hormone
found tats why she is not male or female.

7. A 14year old woman attends with her mother because she has not started menstruating. Outline your initial assessment?

Commonest cause is constitutional delay. There are,
however, causes such as ovarian and adrenal tumours that
are potentially life-threatening and the presence of
dysgenetic gonads with malignant potential.

8. What are the side-effects of magnesium sulphate therapy?

Nausea
Vomiting
Thirst

Flushing of skin

Muscle weakness
Loss of deep tendon reflexes

Respiratory depression

Confusion, drowsiness, coma

Hypotension
Arrhythmias.

9. 35 year old woman is thought to have a vesico-vaginal fistula. What are the main causes of vesico-vaginal fistulas?

The most common cause of fistula was trauma associated with
pelvic operation, and the operation most often involved was
total abdominal hysterectomy.

Malignant disease of the pelvic organs was the second most
common cause, while radiation therapy and obstetrical causes
were next in the order of frequency.

10. Is there an ovarian tumor with hair and teeth?

Dermoid cysts, also known as mature cystic teratomas, are the commonest ovarian tumor. They occur primarily in the reproductive years, but can also occur in children. The tumor has all three germ layers that are seen in the body - ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. As such, the tumor has fat, hair and teeth in it. Teratomas sometimes can be very organized and appear to form fetal-like tissues. Dermoids are bilateral 15-20 percent of the time. Treatment is surgical removal prior to torsion or rupture.

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