1. Explain muscles and their functions in the human body?

Muscles are what we usually call flesh. They have the power
of contraction and consequently of expansion also. When a
muscle contracts, it becomes shorter and thicker like a
piece of India- rubber- its two ends coming neater each
other. Source of supply of energy to the muscle is the
combustion of the glucose supply to the muscle to the muscle
by blood and oxygen it carries with it
There ate two types of muscles
(a) Voluntary, and
(b) Involuntary.
(a)Voluntary:- Voluntary muscles are those with we can
contract whenever we wish it which we move at will. These
ate joined to the bones at either end by chords. When a
muscle of this kind contracts, it pulls one of the bones
towards the other. Since a muscle cannot ?push? , an
opposing muscle brings the bent bone in the straight position.
(b)Involuntary muscles :- Involuntary muscles are not
connected with any bones and we have no control over them.
The heart, the blood ?vessels, hair follicles the interior
of the eye, alimentary canal, bladder and uterus, the
respiratory organs inside the body al these are covered by
these muscles. They do their work not under the command of
man: hence they are involuntary muscles.

3. What are the examples of isometric exercises?

Put both hands together behide back head and push both
hands forward at the same time when pushing head backward.
This exercise increases strength at upper back muscle. Very
usuful exercise for people who have problem at cervical

4. How to get full range of movement for PA shoulder with full restricted movement?

There are several methods to increase ROM like; massage, manual therapeutic techniques, Passive movts, And, very important is: whatever the movt is achieved by the patient, ask him/her to do free pendular exercises.

5. How does the respiratory system in man work?

A man can live without food for a few days, but without air
he cannot live even for five minutes. The moment he is born
he begins to breathe will continue to breath till he is
alive. During the process of breathing he draws some are
into his body and expels some. If this supply if air is cut
off, he is suffocated and dies.

The air we breathe in is taken
into the lungs through the wind pipe. The lunge are situated
in the chest-one in each side of the body. The air we breath
in contains oxygen to the extent of one-fifth of the volume
of air. The oxygen is dissolved in the blood and is carried
to all parts of the body. The oxygen combines with the
tissues and sets free the energy contained in them. The
combination of oxygen with a substance is known as the
process of oxidation, combustion or burning is going on in
the human body every moment of the life of a man-whether he
is awake or asleep. Heat is, of course, generated, but there
is no fire.

The whole system of
respiration can be summarized as follows :
(1) Pure blood received from the lungs is pumped by the
heart into the large arteries.
(2) Veins bring impure blood from various parts of the body
and pour it into the heart.
(3) The heart pumps it out into the lungs for purification.
Thus a cycle is formed and the process is automatic. Lungs
are the most important part of this system, because it is
they that purify the impure blood and discharge waste
products like carbon dioxide. The other parts of the
respiratory system are :
(a) the nose.
(b) The upper part of the wind-pipe which is modified into
the voice box known as larynx.
(c) The wind-pipe.
(d) The lungs.

6. Why do we need to breathe?

All the cells in your body require oxygen. Without it, they
couldn't move, build, reproduce, and turn food into energy.
In fact, without oxygen, they and you would die! How do you
get oxygen? From breathing in air which your blood
circulates to all parts of the body.

7. How do you breathe?

You breathe with the help of your diaphragm and other
muscles in your chest and abdomen. These muscles literally
change the space and pressure inside your body to
accomodate breathing. When your diaphragm pulls down, it
not only leaves more space for the lungs to expand but also
lowers the internal air pressure. Outside, where the air
pressure is greater, you suck in air in an inhale. The air
then expands your lungs like a pair of balloons. When your
diaphragm relaxes, the cavity inside your body gets smaller
again. Your muscles squeeze your rib cage and your lungs
begin to collapse as the air is pushed up and out your body
in an exhale.

8. So, it all starts at the nose?

Yup. About 20 times a minute, you breathe in. When you do,
you inhale air and pass it through your nasal passages
where the air is filtered, heated, moistened and enters the
back of the throat. Interestingly enough, it's the
esophagus or foodpipe which is located at the back of the
throat and the windpipe for air which is located at the
front. When we eat, a flap -- the epiglottis -- flops down
to cover the windpipe so that food doesn't go down the

So -- back to breathing -- the air has a long journey to
get to your lungs. It flows down through the windpipe, past
the voice box or vocal cords, to where the lowermost ribs
meet the center of your chest. There, your windpipe divides
into two tubes which lead to the two lungs which fill most
of your ribcage. Inside each of your sponge-like lungs,
tubes, called bronchi, branch into even smaller tubes much
like the branches of a tree. At the end of these tubes are
millions of tiny bubbles or sacs called aleoli. Spread out
flat, all the air sacs in the lungs of an adult would cover
an area about the third of a tennis court.

9. What do these sacs do?

They help perform an incredible magic act. Your air sacs
bring new oxygen from air you've breathed to your
bloodstream. They exchange it for waste products, like
carbon dioxide, which the cells in your body have made and
can't use.

10. How does this exchange work?

With the help of the red blood cells in your bloodstream.
Your red blood cells are like box cars on train tracks.
They show up at the sacs at just the right time, ready to
trade in old carbon dioxide that your body's cells have
made for some new oxygen you've just breathed in. In the
process, these red blood cells turn from purple to that
beautiful red color as they start carrying the oxygen to
all the cells in your body.

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11. But what happens to the carbon dioxide?

It goes through the lungs, back up your windpipe and out
with every exhale. It's a remarkable feat, this chemical
exchange and breathing in and out. You don't have to tell
your lungs to keep working. Your brain does it
automatically for you.

Your lungs contain almost 1500 miles of airways and over
300 million alveoli.
Every minute you breathe in 13 pints of air.
Plants are our partners in breathing. We breathe in air,
use the oxygen in it, and release carbon dioxide. Plants
take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Thank goodness!
People tend to get more colds in the winter because we're
indoors more often and in close proximity to other people.
When people sneeze, cough and even breathe -- germs go

12. What is The Nostril?

Present inside the nose and above the mouth it is regionated anteroposteriorly into vestibule, respiratory channel and olfactory organs. A cartilaginous nasal septum divides the vestibule into two lateral halves. The respiratory channel passes through scroll-like turbinal bones and passes by olfactory region into pharynx through a pair of posterior nare. It performs (i) filtration, (ii) air-conditioning and (iii) warming.

13. What is Pharynx?

Pharynx is a common passage for air and food. The pharynx is divisible into naso-pharynx, oropharynx and laryngeal pharynx.

14. What is The Larynx and Vocal Cords?

It is the anterior enlarged part of the wind pipe, made of cartilage i.e. thyroid, cricoids. Arytenoids, etc. the enlarged thyroid cartilage is called Adam's apple. A cartilaginous muscular flap, the epiglottis is attached to the top of the thyroid cartilage. It can close the glottis while swallowing food. Vocal cords are stretched between thyroid and arytenoids cartilages. Vibrations of vocal cords produce sound. Rima glottidis is the opening between the cords.

15. What is Trachea?

The wind pipe, trachea is 10-12cm long and 2.5 compound in diameter. Entering into thoracic cavity trachea divides into the right and left bronchi. The trachea is supported by C-shaped cartilages.

16. What is Bronchi?

Each bronchus enters the lungs of its side. The right bronchus gives up four branches while the left has two.Inside each lung these branches go on ramifying till a bronchial tree is formed. The terminal bronchioles open into a space called vestibule which gives rise to one to three respiratory bronchioles. The wall of respiratory bronchioles form thin walled sac-like alveoli.

17. What is Lungs?

Lungs are the principal organs of respiration.Ty lie in thoracic cavity. Right lung is 3-lobed and left lung two-lobed. The cone shaped space between two lungs is called mediastinum. Each lung is covered by a two-layered membrane. Its outer membrane is called parietal pleura and inner visceral pleura. The space between these two membranes is called pleural cavity which is filed with a serous fluid. This fluid lubricates the lungs and protects them from friction.

18. What is Write a short note on the human skin. Describe its functions?

Skin plays an important part in a man?s life. It makes his
appearance attractive. He gets a distinctive appearance
because of his skin. There are race conflicts because of the
colour of the skin.

There covering if the human body. Is known
as the skin. Two layers of akin cover the body. The lower
layer known as dermis is made up of fibrous tissues having
blood vessels , glands, hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.
It is very essential that the skin is kept clean. Dust and
dirt collect on the skin and become mixed with salts and
the scales of the outer skin. They thus from fertile soil
for the growth of germs.

19. The most important functions of the skin are?

(1) To regulate body temperature. The skin which is exposed
to the cooling action of the air outside, plays an important
part in regulating the loss of heat and maintaining uniform
temperature of body. This is dine by the mechanism if
dilation and contraction of superficial blood vessels and by
the evaporation of water from the body surface. In fact
this function if the skin can be compared to that of the
radiator of a car

(2)To act as a sense organ. Pain heat, pressure, cold,
touch, etc.. are all felt by the skin and conveyed to the brain

(3)To protect internal organs against external injury and
infection. Many an injury is limited to the skin. But for
skin, our bones would be cracking too often. In fact this
function of the skin can be compared to that of the radiator
of a car.
(4)To eliminate waste products through sweat glands
(5)To protect the body form harmful rays of the sun by means
of pigments of the outer skin

20. Describe the functions of joints and human skeleton?

The place of attachment between two or more bones is known
as a joint. All the joints of the body are capable of
movement except for the joints of the bones of cranium,
which houses the brain.

There are various kinds of movable
joints depending upon the movements they perform. Thus the
knee joint is like a hinge, which allows the lower keg to
move up or down, but not sideways. Following are different
kinds of joints
1. Hinge-joint
2. Pivot-joint
3. Ball and socket joint
4. Gliding joint

(1)Hinge- joint :-This allows the movement of the part of
body in one direction ?up or sown but not sideways. Example
of this joint are knee-joint, elbow-joint, movement of the
lower jaw.

(2)Pivot joint :-As the name suggests, this kind of joint
permits pivotal movement of the parts of body this joined.
Movement of the skull is an example. A man can turn his head
from one side to the other by rotating the skull, which is
joined to the backbone at its top in such a way that a
pivotal movements is possible

21. Explain Ball and socket joint?

When a part is capable of making an
all round movement ?up and down and sideways- this is
possible by a joint of this kind. The leg can be moved in
any direction, sideways, up and down

22. Explain Gliding joint?

An example of this kind of joint is the
movement of the wrist. At the wrist there are a number of
small boned which glide one over the other, when we turn our
palm upwards or downwards.

23. Describe a human skeleton?

Our body has a supporting frame work made of bones. This
frame work is known as skeleton. It is the skeleton which
gives the body its firmness. Without- the skeleton our body
will be as supple as that of a worm. There is another great
advantage of the skeleton. It protects some of the most
delicate parts of the human body form external injury. Thus
the brain is kept safe in a bony box. This box safeguards
the heart and the lungs. Also by its very nature of
formation, it helps body movement with the help of muscles
attached to it. The main parts of the skeleton are the skull
and the spinal column.