1. What is adnexal?

appendages or accessory structures of an organ, e.g. of the uterus, including the uterine tubes and ligaments and ovaries.

2. What is caseous?

"cheesy" or "cheese-like". As in caseous necrosis - cell death characteristic of certain inflammations (e.g. tuberculosis) where the affected tissue shows the crumbly consistency and dull, opaque quality of cheese. Based on casein - the principal protein of milk, the basis of curds and cheese.

3. What is cyanosis?

a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in blood and hence deficient oxygenation of blood. cyanotic (adj.).

4. What is epidemiology?

the study of the relationships of various factors determining the frequency and distribution of diseases in the human community; also the field of medicine dealing with the determination of specific causes of localized outbreaks of infection, poisoning or other disease of recognized etiology.

5. What is infarction?

the formation of an infarct; acute myocardial infarction (AMI) - circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis of tissue is occurring.

6. What is acromegaly?

A condition in adults resulting from excess growth hormone characterized by enlargement of the hands and feet, change in shoe size, gradual changes in facial features, including protrusion of the lower jaw and brow, and enlargement of the nasal bone

7. What is biopsy?

Removal of a small amount of tissue and/or fluid; the specimen is usually obtained by cutting or by suction through a needle.

8. What is fragile X Syndrome?

The most common inherited cause of mental retardation; takes its name from the appearance of the stained X chromosome under a microscope – there is a site near the end of this chromosome that does not stain, indicating its fragility. The gene in the fragile region is important in making a special protein needed by developing brain cells.

9. What is achalasia?

failure to relax; especially referring to smooth muscle fibers at any junction of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. openings such as the pylorus, cardia or other sphincter muscles); especially failure of the esophageal sphincter to relax with swallowing.

10. What is creatine kinase?

an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. It occurs as three isozymes (specific to brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, respectively). Each isozyme has two components composed of muscle (M) and brain (B) subunits - CK1 (BB) is found primarily in brain, CK2 (MB) in cardiac muscle and CK3 (MM) primarily in skeletal muscle. Differential determination of isozymes is used in clinical diagnosis.

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11. What is ectasia?

dilatation, expansion or distention. e.g. duct ectasia = dilatation of duct plugged with secretion, accompanied by periductal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrate.

12. What is granuloma?

a term applied to any small nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or such a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, giant cells and other macrophages (usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes).

13. What is ecchymosis?

a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membrane, larger than apetechia, forming a nonelevated, rounded, or irregular blue or purplish patch. ecchymoses, pl.

14. What is CIN?

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells..

15. What is amine?

a chemical substance in the body whose structure is similar to ammonia; a family of hormones (adrenal medulla - epinephrine & norepinephrine) or neurotransmitters in brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin).

16. Tell me what is adhesion?

in close proximity; joining of parts to one another which may occur abnormally as in a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures.

17. What is congestion?

abnormal accumulation of blood or fluid in a part (e.g. of blood - passive congestion - obstruction of the escape of blood from a part (as in liver); pulmonary congestion - engorgement of pulmonary vessels, with transudation of fluid into alveolar and interstitial spaces).

18. What is fibrillation?

a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction, due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers whose nerve supply has been damaged or cut off. Also see ventricular fibrillation.

19. What is acute Myelocytic Leukemia?

bone marrow disease that is characterized by the production of large numbers of an immature granulocyte (a neutrophil -- the most common, basophil, or eosinophil) that replace other normal cells in the marrow.

20. What is bronchiectasis?

A condition in which the airways are stretched and/or widened that can be caused by recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways and results in symptoms such as bluish skin, coughing and wheezing, and shortness of breath

21. Explain me what is amino acid(s)?

the basic building block of protein; there are 20 common amino acid types and their sequence will determine the properties and function of each protein.

22. What is endoscope?

an instrument to visually examine the interior of a hollow organ such as the colon, intestine or bladder; endoscopy is the procedure.

23. What is acute Phase Reactant?

A protein that increases or decreases in concentration with conditions that cause acute tissue inflammation or trauma.

24. What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?

The unique genetic code found in all living cells (bacteria, viruses, parasites, plants, and animals).

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25. What is half-life?

The amount of time it takes for the body to inactivate or metabolize half of a substance; a second half-life would decrease the remainder by half again, and so on.